Monday, November 15, 2004

11 13

Dilip 11 13

We’re a week behind; we could focus on:

1) Asian Challenge - Japan and “Asian tigers” (S.Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore) who have succeeded with globally-focused economies; China and India have recently succeeded as well. Russia has not done as well.
2) 9/11/terror and globalization; in the Middle East, are we headed toward a clash of civilizations, or normalization of relations with Middle East and West?

We’ll read about 9/11 and terror, but the readings will touch on the Asian Challenge.

Bhagwati focused on Asia, Stiglitz on Africa; in Asia, capital market regulation may have been all that was needed, globalization issues in Africa may be more a more difficult challenge.

How Globalization has Changed My Workplace – Final Paper – Due December 7

How has my company’s market been changed by globalization? Have back-office services been outsourced? Is it importing/exporting to and from foreign countries more than before? Has advertising used to market my company’s product become more focused on diasporic communities in the U.S.? Are we selling more abroad?

How have my fellow workers, vendors, and customers changed in composition, functionality, or interactive style?

Have technologies, esp. information technologies, changed, and how have they affected my workplace? Have they made my job easier, or more difficult? (e.g. Time-Space compression, mobility, work while you play). Communication revolution (extended hours/travel working with people in other time zones, call centers in India operate from midnight onward, men and women mix in night hours, makes up a Western name for work, changes social structure)

Be creative; reflect on career and nature of work, how has work changed my level of anxiety, self image, overall relationship to work.

Next Assignment due Tuesday before Thanksgiving – November 30 – Dilip wants good papers, not so concerned about when they arrive.

Paper #3 – Globalization and Politics

Many in class stopped watching election coverage after the election was over, though some were news-junkies before Nov. 2. U.S. election of 2004 was a classic two-party election, traditional process. In order to be successful, an individual must be part of a group; in the U.S., you must be part of a party. In a globalized world, is there an existing or emerging conception of politics? Will it go on as it is? Two kinds of politics – Social Movement Politics, like the civil rights movement, the women’s suffrage movement or abolition (often after goal is achieved, the organizations behind the movements cease to exist) (Q: Where do Social Movements get their money and skill?) and Electoral Politics, carried on by political parties. Types of politics blend; in social movements, legislative and judicial branches were involved, someone like Jesse Jackson does both. Our question: Are either type of politics changing because of globalization? Is a new type of politics emerging? Is anti-globalization a social movement like others, or different? (Just because it’s about globalization doesn’t make it new). Are corporations engaged in a new kind of politics?

Readings for paper:

Susan Strange’s first essay – Three paradoxes of decline of state

1) Governments are losing power to regulate information, economies, national cultures. The government seems to be everywhere, however; there are licenses and regulation for everything. This leads to disrespect for the government.
2) Today every group wants its own status as independence as nations; this is happening at a time when there is little independence, countries are more dependent on each other.
3) State regulated economies don’t work, but Asian tigers prosper with state run economies.

(The apparatus in the U.S. is an exception) What does Europe do in the event of a natural disaster? What if Turkey decided to attack its European neighbors? The larger the EU becomes, the less likely it will become a political union, because there will be different political views; if there was a Western European EU only, they might have created a common army. Europe will be an economic and cultural counterforce to the U.S., but not political. (Turkey’s admission might lead EU to become political, resistance to their admission is based on a cultural/political changes it might bring). The 21st Century is thought to be the American/Asian century, while the 20th was the American century. Is China the only possible counterforce to the U.S.?

Technology and communication drive changes.

1) Politics is a common activity, not confined to bureaucrats and politicians.
2) Outcome is exercised by markets, and unintentionally by customers.
3) The authority in society or economic activity is legitimately exercised by agents other than the state.

Appadurai – Deep Democracy

What is the alliance that works on behalf of the illegal slum-dwellers in the city of Mumbai? Three groups of people: SPARC, an NGO; the slum dwellers association; the women’s association.
The slum-dwellers lack water, electricity, and sanitary living conditions (toilets and infrastructure). In some countries, there are ration cards that enable people to buy food staples. (necessities are food, shelter, and basic services) In the poorest countries, 80% of income is spent on food. People who live in illegal slums pay more for necessities than street-dwellers or legal shantytown dwellers. Slum dwellers are not legally entitled to these services. The alliance works to lay claim to domicile for illegal slum dwellers, and get access to these services.

Women’s organizations have sprung up because women can save rather than impulsively spend as men do, they have immediate obligations to children.

The alliance’s groups want to remain autonomous, not combine. Federating is better than combining.

In the future, are federations better than mergers in social movements? In politics, federations lead to more democratic decision-making than bureaucratic or central decision-making. Will U.S. social movements become federations rather than mergers? Success by a federation will not lead to dissolution of any of the member groups.

Politics of patience – MLK Jr.’s Birmingham jail speech, equality can’t wait; “drug of gradualism”…slowly and steadily the condition of African-American will improve, but MLK rejected this idea. African-American leaders believed that discriminatory practices could be ended quickly, that African-Americans could succeed sooner rather than later. Malcolm X said that Democrats might take them for granted, may be oppressive.

Given the condition of the poor, how does it gradually change? Alliance has not aligned itself with any party, will deal with anyone who can help the alliance. The alliance has no ideology. Many urban planners create communities for the poor that are removed from others, banish them to areas miles from cities (Soweto-Johannesburg)…the alliance thinks that the poor communities must be in population centers where they have access to jobs and resources.

What new politics apply to people in slums? The new politics probably run contrary to Utopian views that healthy economy = elimination of poverty and slums. Asian slums are the hub of productive activity, removing them would lead to economic problems; keeping the poor among the prosperous is part of the new politics. The other feature of slum life is that all are involved; every member of the slum is involved in the cause by attending meetings, talking about their situation. In the alliance, meetings sometimes take place in the slum. The slum dwellers constantly count their number; a bureaucratic infrastructure is organized to determine how many are affected, an greater number is more influential and credible (Computers are used to achieve this).
To accomplish changes of this variety, patience is required. Moves like rioting, conventional elections are over quickly.

The alliance groups have things to teach each other; slum dwellers will talk to others in other cities. This has gone global; slum dwellers from Phnom Phen talk to poor in Johannesburg; “Globalization from Below” is leading to an international association of slum dwellers.

This politics is different from Social Movement and Electoral Politics; will it be sustainable?

Rafael – Philippines, Estrada (1998-2001) - Estrada was impeached for accepting bribes. Unusual protests to oust Estrada, middle class took to the street, as did young people. Cell phones were used to oust Estrada; text messaging through the phone was widespread while computers were not. Is this kind of politics sustainable? What happened with Princess Di was a sudden rush of sentimentality, and went on for a week or so, then disappeared. What kind of phenomenon was this? Could it be repeated for political reform? In anti-globalization movement, no one knew where the protestors came from; IT enabled this organization, but who were the political agents who sent the messages? What kind of politics does this represent?

Activists beyond borders – we won’t discuss, but will be part of the readings for the paper.


Post a Comment

<< Home